In general, if you e-mail or physically give copies of NAQT packets to people outside of your team/club, you are in violation of NAQT’s distribution agreement and may incur financial penalties and/or be banned from tournaments.
Generally speaking, NAQT considers its practice questions, study guides, and other products to be licensed to schools (or, rarely, non-school institutions). When an individual places an order with NAQT, NAQT treats the questions as being licensed by the school with which the purchaser is affiliated. That affiliation can either be in the sense of NAQT’s eligibility rules (“I take classes at—and play for—this school”) or in the sense of being a coach or employee. If a purchaser is a relative of a person with an affiliation, NAQT will assume that the purchase is being made on behalf of the relative’s affiliated school.
If a purchaser has multiple affiliations, and the intended school is not clear from the context of the order (for instance, by looking at the billing address or the purchase order’s letterhead), NAQT will clarify the licensing school before shipping questions.
NAQT will also license practice material directly to an individual. This is the default if NAQT cannot determine a purchaser’s affiliation, but may also be explicitly requested by the purchaser.
There are four ways for schools or individuals to acquire a license to use NAQT questions for practice material:
- Licensing them directly from NAQT (“purchasing practice material”).
- Receiving a printed copy of a set used at a tournament that the school attended. (This option is not available to individuals.)
- Hosting a tournament using NAQT questions. (Hosts may keep a printed copy of the tournament set for their own use.)
- Purchasing the set from another school (or individual) that has a valid practice-question license. As per the doctrine of first sale, the seller must transfer (or destroy) all copies of the material (in any medium).
A school may use licensed packets to conduct practices. A practice is an event taking place in a single physical room in which questions are used in any way reminiscent of quiz bowl competition. At least two-thirds of the participants must have affiliations with the licensing school.
Schools may also use licensed packets to conduct online practices (using appropriate technologies), so long as at least two-thirds of participants are affiliated with the school. These practices must not be conducted in such a way so as to allow participants to make whole or partial copies of the practice material.
Schools must make a good-faith effort to ensure that unaffiliated participants at practices (in-person or online) have no plans to compete on upcoming tournaments using the same set.
An individual may use packets licensed to themself (rather than to a school) to conduct in-person practices so long as they are physically present. As for online practices, these practices must not be conducted in such a way as to allow participants to make whole or partial copies of the practice material.
Other uses are disallowed without explicit permission from NAQT.
Once a school has licensed a set of practice material, the administrators of its quiz bowl team may make physical copies to distribute to people affiliated with the school. It is the collective responsibility of the team’s administrators, coaches, officers, and recipients of the packets to ensure that all such copies are destroyed or returned when an affiliation comes to an end. A high school player may not, for instance, take copies of sets licensed by their high school with them when they enter college.
A school’s team may also scan licensed sets to distribute electronic copies to affiliated people, but all such copies must be deleted when the affiliation ends. In addition, due to the ease with which electronic copies can be disseminated, schools are expected to very clearly communicate what recipients may do, and communicate the eventual requirement that the sets be deleted.
Licensed packets may not be distributed, in any form, to people without an affiliation unless every copy is transferred at the same time (as per method #4, above). Such a distribution is considered a transfer of the license. Distribution includes any act that makes the text of entire packets, partial packets, individual questions, or parts of questions available to other people. Examples of distribution include the making of a physical copy of a set and giving to another person, or the transcribing of a question as part of a post on an Internet forum.
From time to time, NAQT may publicly state that whole or partial questions from certain packet sets may be quoted under restricted circumstances (e.g., “Players may quote questions from this year’s Sectional Championship Tournament on this password-protected forum.”). In the absence of such a statement from an officer of NAQT, no such permission is given.
In addition, “analysis” of NAQT packets produced in the current competition year, or the previous competition year, may not be distributed if that analysis could be used to gain a competitive advantage. This is true even if the analysis does not include any actual question text. An example of analysis might be, “Here is a chart showing the breakdown of countries that NAQT has asked about in its recent Invitational Series.” This provision notwithstanding, members of the quiz bowl community are encouraged to produce and distribute analyses of packet sets that are from previous competition years.
These rules apply to all licensed sets, regardless of their age or potential use at future tournaments. These rules also apply to non-question material licensed from NAQT, including study guides (like frequency lists).
If you have questions about these rules, please don’t hesitate to contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org. In addition, if you have an idea for a use of NAQT questions that violates these rules, you can request an exception by contacting us at the same address. Our goal is preventing the widespread distribution of copyrighted material, not forestalling innovative uses of our questions.