# Explanation of Statistics

NAQT uses many abbreviations in its reports of tournaments’ results and statistics. An explanation of each abbreviation’s meaning, and the applications of each statistic, follows.

Depending on the gameplay rules used at a tournament, and the completeness of the results sent to us by the host, not all statistics are available for all tournaments.

- W-L or W-L-T: Win-Loss(-Tie) Record
- This number represents the proportion of the teams a team played that it won. It is the primary statistic used in determining a team’s placement during preliminary rounds, and in tournaments with no playoff re-bracketing, the final placement.
- %: Winning Percentage
- This is essentially the win-loss record expressed as a single number. It is calculated as the number of games a team won, divided by the total number of games it played. If the tournament allows ties, those are counted as half a win.
- Points
- The total number of points a team scored throughout a tournament, including tossups, bonuses, and—if the tournament allowed them—bonus bouncebacks, worksheet rounds, and lightning rounds.
- The version of this statistic for individual players includes only points on tossups.
- TUH: Tossups Heard
- The total number of tossup questions a team or player had the opportunity to answer. For tournaments using untimed rounds, teams will usually have the same number of tossups heard. For timed tournaments, this number can vary significantly.
- This number is used to normalize calculations like PPTUH (see below) to account for the fact that some teams may have had more opportunities to score points than other teams did.
- GP: Games Played
- This is the number of games that an individual player participated in during a tournament. Playing partial games (e.g. only the first half) is counted accordingly, so a player may have, for instance, 8.5 games played.
- P: Powers
- The number of tossup questions that a team or player answered early and correctly, thus receiving extra points. (Not all tournaments offer powers.)
- TU: Regular Tossups
- The number of tossup questions that a team or player answered correctly but not early enough to earn power points.
- I: Interrupts
- The number of tossup questions that a team or player answered incorrectly before the question was over (and before the other team did so), earning a penalty. These are also called “negs.” (Not all tournaments penalize incorrect interrupts.)
- PPB: Points Per Bonus
- The number of points that a team scored on bonuses, divided by the number of bonuses heard.
- In NAQT rules, the number of bonuses heard is the same as the number of tossups answered correctly not in overtime, i.e.,
`P + TU`

minus the number of overtime tossups. Other rules may have regulation tossups that do not lead to bonuses, overtime tossups that do lead to bonuses, or no bonuses at all. - Many tournaments use PPB to compare teams who did not play the same opponents, because the quality of a team’s opponents cannot affect its points per bonus.
- PPTUH, PP20TUH, PP
*n*TUH: Points Per Tossup Heard, Points Per 20 Tossups Heard, or Points Per*n*Tossups Heard - For teams, PPTUH is the total number of points scored divided by the number of tossups heard. Versions with a number in the middle, like “PP20TUH,” are multiplied by that number; PP20TUH thus essentially represents the number of points a team scored in an average 20-tossup game.
- For individual players, the calculation is the same except that only tossup points are considered (because only tossup points are credited to an individual player rather than to the team as a whole).
- NAQT seeds playoff brackets based on preliminary win-loss record, then team PPTUH in the preliminary rounds, and uses players’ PPTUH to give individual awards.
- BB%: Bounceback Conversion Rate
- Some tournaments (though not ones using official NAQT rules) offer “bouncebacks,” the opportunity for the team who
*didn’t*answer a tossup correctly to try to answer any bonus parts that the tossup-answering team fails to answer correctly. For such tournaments, the bounceback conversion rate is the number of bounceback points earned divided by the maximum number of bounceback points the team could possibly have earned (the latter of which is the same as the number of bonus points that the team’s opponents collectively missed). - Lightning/Worksheet Points, Lightning/Worksheet Points Per Game
- Some tournaments (though not ones using official NAQT rules) offer lightning rounds or worksheets as part of a game. For such tournaments, the Lightning- or Worksheet-Points column represents the total number of points a team earned through such means, and the Lightning Points Per Game or Worksheet Points Per Game column represents that number divided by the number of games the team played.
- P%: Power Percentage
- The proportion of correct tossup answers that a team or player answered early enough to earn power points. This is calculated as
`P / (P + TU)`

. - This statistic is used to break ties in PPTUH when ranking individual players.